HOMESample room > Disease Cytopathology

Disease Cytopathology

Alzheimer's disease
Temporal lobe
Parkinson's disease
Diffuse Lewy body disease
Cerebral cortex
Multiple system atrophy
Nucleus basalis(amygdala)
Upper pons
Cerebellum(horizontal dislocation)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Precentral gyrus
Internal Capsule
Spinal cord
Multiple sclerosis
Central pontine myelinolysis
Middle pons
Purulent meningitis
AIDS leukoencephalopathy
Nucleus basalis
Tuberculous meningitis
Cytomegalovirus encephalitis
Prion disease(Jakob disease)
Anoxic encephalopathy
Old cerebral infarction
Nucleus basalis・Insular cortex
Lacunar infarction
Nucleus basalis
Brain contusion
Temporal lobe
Brain stem injury
Krabbe disease
Cerebrum(Occipital lobe)
Cavernous hemangioma
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Parkinson's disease/midbrain

In 1817, James Parkinson provided the first detailed description of the clinical pattern of Parkinson’s disease. In 1917, Tretiakoff’s thesis presented the clinicopathological aspects of the disease, showing that the responsible lesions were in the midbrain substantia nigra.

In Parkinson’s disease, dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra undergo degeneration, loss, and gliosis formation. Neuronal neuromelanin breaks down and is released from the cells, resulting in depigmentation. Therefore, macroscopically, the substantia nigra loses its normal brown color and turns whitish. Depigmentation also occurs in the locus coeruleus, causing it to macroscopically lose its normal brown color. These macroscopic findings are characteristic of Parkinson’s disease.

In addition to neuronal loss, brain stem-type Lewy bodies are formed in cell bodies. Lewy body formation occurs in the substantia nigra and extensively throughout the brain stem nuclei, including the oculomotor nucleus, locus coeruleus, and dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve. In the cerebrum, Lewy bodies are also prone to forming within neurons in the Meynert basal ganglia, hypothalamus, and amygdala. Cortical Lewy bodies are also observed in the cerebral cortex, albeit in small numbers. In the peripheral nervous system, Lewy bodies appear in the sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia, intestinal nerve plexuses, and adrenal glands.

Lewy bodies form not only within cell bodies, but also within neurites. Extracellular Lewy bodies that have been released from cells are also present.

Lewy bodies are positive for α-synuclein and ubiquitin. With α-synuclein and ubiquitin staining, Lewy bodies and some neurites stain positive. These neurites are known as Lewy neurites, or Lewy-related neurites.

HE stain

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Ubiquitin stain


α-Synuclein stain